Information - about georgia

Georgia (/ˈdʒɔːrdʒə/; Georgian: საქართველო, tr. Sakartvelo, IPA: [sɑkʰɑrtʰvɛlɔ]) is a country located on the border of Eastern Europe and West Asia, often considered to be part of Europe. Nestled between the Greater Caucasus and Lesser Caucasus mountain ranges, it is bounded to the west by the Black Sea, to the north and northeast by Russia, to the south by Turkey and Armenia, and to the southeast by Azerbaijan. The capital and largest city is Tbilisi. Georgia covers a territory of 69,700 square kilometres (26,911 sq mi), and its 2016 population is about 3.72 million. Georgia is a unitary, semi-presidential republic, with the government elected through a representative democracy.

During classical antiquity, several independent kingdoms became established in what is now Georgia. The most prominent of these Georgian precursor states, Colchis in the west and Iberia in the east, adopted Christianity as their state religion in the early 4th century. Following a complex period of nation building, a unified Kingdom of Georgia reached the peak of its political and economic strength during the reign of King David IV and Queen Tamar from the late 11th to the early 13th centuries. Throughout the early modern period, Georgia became fractured and fell into decline due to the onslaught of various hostile empires, including the Mongols, the Ottoman Empire, and Persia. In 1783, Eastern Georgia forged an alliance with the Russian Empire, which led to the gradual annexation of Georgia by Russia starting in 1801.

Following the Russian collapse in 1917, Georgia established its first-ever republic under German and British protection, but was subsequently invaded by Bolshevik Russia and absorbed into the Soviet Union. After restoring its independence once again in 1991, post-communist Georgia suffered from civil unrest and economic crisis for most of the 1990s. This lasted until the Rose Revolution, when Georgia pursued a strongly pro-Western foreign policy, introducing a series of democratic and economic reforms aimed at NATO and European integration. This led to the worsening of relations with Russia, culminating in the Russo-Georgian War.

Georgia is a member of the Council of Europe and the GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development. It contains two de facto independent regions, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, which gained limited international recognition after the 2008 Russo-Georgian War. Georgia and a major part of the international community consider the regions to be part of Georgia's sovereign territory under Russian military occupation.

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Capital:
Tbilisi
Official languages:
Georgian
Demonym:
Georgian
Legislature:
Parliament
Area:
69,420 km ²
Population:
3,720,400
GDP (PPP):
$37.27 billion
Currency:
Georgian Lari (GEL)
Time zone:
GET (UTC+4)
Antipodes:
Pacific Ocean
Drives on the:
Right
Calling code:
+995
ISO 3166 code:
GE
Internet TLD:
.ge .გე