History - about georgia

The nation of Georgia (Georgian: საქართველო sakartvelo) was first unified as a single kingdom in 1008 AD, arising from a number of predecessor states of Colchis and Iberia. The Kingdom of Georgia flourished and reached its Golden Age during the 10th to 13th centuries under King David IV and Queen Tamar the Great. Thereafter and throughout the early modern period, Georgia became fractured and fell into decline due to the onslaught of various hostile empires, including the Mongols, the Ottoman Empire, and Persia. By 1490, Georgia disintegrated into a number of small kingdoms and principalities, which struggled to maintain their autonomy against their Turco-Iranic neighbors. This lasted until 1801 when Georgia, already being a Russian protectorate, was outright annexed by the Russian Empire. Following Russia's collapse in 1917, Georgia established its first sovereign Republic under German and British protection; the First Republic was soon invaded by Bolshevik Russia and absorbed into the Soviet Union in 1922.

The present-day country of Georgia has been independent since the Soviet collapse in 1991. Post-communist Georgia was almost immediately beset by Russian-backed separatist rebellions in Abkhazia and South Ossetia. It also suffered from civil unrest and economic crisis for most of the 1990s. This lasted until the Rose Revolution of 2003, when Georgia pursued a strongly pro-Western foreign policy, introducing major economic and democratic reforms. Georgia's desire to work closer with the United States and the European Union strained the country's relations with Russia, which imposed economic sanctions, began to target ethnic Georgians and increased its support to Georgia's separatists, culminating in the Russo-Georgian War. Following these crises, Georgia continued reforms and its Euro-Atlantic integration drive, notwithstanding the change of political forces in the country.

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Capital:
Tbilisi
Official languages:
Georgian
Demonym:
Georgian
Legislature:
Parliament
Area:
69,420 km ²
Population:
3,720,400
GDP (PPP):
$37.27 billion
Currency:
Georgian Lari (GEL)
Time zone:
GET (UTC+4)
Antipodes:
Pacific Ocean
Drives on the:
Right
Calling code:
+995
ISO 3166 code:
GE
Internet TLD:
.ge .გე